На предыдущем шаге мы проверили наши гипотезы при помощи имитации продукта. Теперь мы можем начинать создавать настоящий продукт – это самый объективный способ убедиться в верности наших гипотез.
Цель minimum viable product (MVP) – минимальными усилиями проверить жизнеспособность бизнес-идеи. Создать версию продукта, позволяющую собрать достаточное количество данных для проверки ключевых продуктовых гипотез. Вторая цель MVP – обучение. Собирая данные о взаимодействии пользователей с нашим продуктом, анализируя их фидбек – мы можем получить важные инсайты.
Выбор функционала для MVP
Задача маркетинга на этом этапе – помочь определить список функционала, который будет в MVP. Нам нужно собрать продукт с набором функций, которые будут создавать ценность (помогать выполнять работу) и дифференцировать нас от существующих решений (более эффективно “закрывать” потребности, возникающие при выполнении работы).
Шаблон описания функционала:
Мы верим, что “целевая аудитория” будет эффективно удовлетворять “потребность” используя “функционал” при выполнении “работы”.
Пример создания MVP Airbnb
Формулируем продуктовые гипотезы
1. Airbnb’s Problem
Travellers around the world cannot find an easy way to book a room with a local or become a host. The main existing offer for tourism accommodation is a hotel, which is not adapted to the preferences of Millennials because it leaves them disconnected from the City and its culture.
2. Airbnb’s VP (Value Proposition)
Airbnb is an online marketplace connecting travellers with local hosts. On one side users can list their available spaces to local tourism and make extra money while travellers can book unique places from locals, saving money and getting a chance to interact with them.
3. Airbnb’s Main Target
There are two targets for Airbnb, The Traveller and The Host. The Traveller – a person who enjoys travelling without spending the whole budget in a hotel room. He/She usually is a millennial, keen on learning from and co-living with different cultures and willing to enjoy experiences with locals rather than people from the home Country. Millennials’ tourism behaviour is quite interesting: 3/4 vacations per year, they prefer experiences over resorts, they save in accommodation and spend on activities. The Host – owner/renter who is willing to rent out his space. The reason is usually making money accompanied by the interest to meet interesting people.
4. How does each target stakeholder deal with the problem today (Benchmark)?
Hotels, Hostels, Couchsurfing.
5. Why is Airbnb better than the current solution?
Airbnb is perfect for Millennials. It enables travellers to manage their trips accommodation in a natural, hassle-free and simple flux with the best value for money, taking into account their concerns for being more genuine and cost-efficient. It also enables owners to rent out their spaces in an easy way, by simply listing the place on the platform once and receiving money exclusively online and offers an affordable solution to the travellers.
6. What is Airbnb’s Elevator Pitch?
It’s been created for millennials who want to travel in a comfortable, cost-efficient and genuine way. Airbnb is a marketplace to fill the gap between Hosts that want to short-rent their homes and Travellers that are willing to pay to be hosted in private venues by locals. Unlike Hotels, Airbnb creates engagement between guests, hosts and their cultures and simplifies the entire process of renting a space around the world. Unlike Hostels and Couchsurfing, Airbnb is more exclusive and suitable for a more private and comfortable stay.
Выбираем гипотезы для проверки
1. What are the main assumptions from Airbnb’s Elevator Pitch?
- Want to pay to be hosted in private venues by locals to have a genuine experience
- Are willing to share venues with total strangers
- Want to stay in private venues on a constant basis
- Want to short-rent their homes to make money
- Are willing to accommodate total strangers in their homes
- Want to short-rent their homes several times per year
2. From Airbnb’s assumptions, which ones have been already validated?
- Travellers want to pay to be hosted in private venues by locals to have a genuine experience → 17,000 temporary housing listings on Craigslist in San Francisco & New York City (9–16 Jul 2007)
- Hosts want to short-rent their homes to make money → 17,000 temporary housing listings on Craigslist in San Francisco & New York City (9–16 Jul 2007)
- Hosts are willing to accommodate total strangers in their homes → 630,000 spaces available on Couchsurfing.com
- Travellers are willing to share venues with total strangers → 630,000 spaces available on Couchsurfing.com
3. From these assumptions, which ones do we need to validate and which are the KPIs?
- Travellers want to stay in private venues on a constant basis → KPI: Travellers retention ratio
- Hosts want to short-rent their homes several times per year → KPI: Hosts retention ratio
Находим способы проверить гипотезы
Is it possible to build a non-functional MVP that has a shorter development time and is enough to test Airbnb’s main assumptions?
Building an MVP like Airbnbs will take around three and a half months at a cost of 35K. In this case, real metrics are much more valuable to prove Airbnb’s assumptions. So, while building a non-functional MVP would be cheaper, it would only give us metrics of market interest. For Airbnb, it’s much more valuable to gather indicators of retention.
For this demonstration let’s not get a massive list of features. Instead, let’s filter and list the most relevant features in the shape of user stories. This should be the very last shortlist after screening thousands of features/user stories that we’d love to implement but aren’t essential to prove the concept.
For Airbnb it looks something like this.
As a traveller I want to:
- See available houses with prices and the host profile with ratings, so I feel safe about my options
- Have credits when sharing with my friends (this referral system will not only enhance traction but will also give an incentive to repeat the experience-enhancing retention because the credits will only be used in future trips)
As a host I want to:
- See applicant travellers, so I can pick the applications I accept, so I feel safe about who I let in my home
- Have Airbnb help me to get the best results out of my home (for the MVP these incentives are non-functional, mostly related to marketing content: the professional pictures Airbnb took from all first houses)